Volvo is developing two prototype fuel cell vehicles, based on the C30 DRIVe Electric, that are due to be ready for real-life testing in 2012.
This technology is expected to increase the electric car’s operating range by up to 250 kilometres – in addition to the range provided by the car’s battery pack. The fuel cell industry expects that the cost efficiency will improve continuously through refined technology and large-scale production.
Volvo is working together with the company Powercell Sweden AB on this project. In the first phase, a preliminary study is being conducted into what is known as a Range Extender, which consists of a fuel cell with a reformer. The task of the reformer is to break down a liquid fuel, in this case petrol, and create hydrogen gas. In the fuel cell, this hydrogen gas is converted into electrical energy, which is used to power the car’s electric motor.
The technology generates electricity without any emissions of carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and particles. Due to the highly efficient process, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are significantly reduced compared with a conventional vehicle. The end products are electricity, water and a small amount of carbon dioxide.
The technology also can be adapted for renewable fuels.
In the next phase, pending support from the Swedish Energy Agency, Volvo and Powercell will produce two test cars based on the current Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric. Testing of the cars will begin in 2012.
“This is an exciting expansion of our focus on electrification. Battery cost and size means that all-electric cars still have a relatively limited operating range. Fuel cells may be one way of extending the distance these cars can cover before they need to be recharged. What is more, the project gives us increased knowledge about fuel cells and hydrogen gas,” says Volvo Cars President and CEO Stefan Jacoby.
“We have just taken the first steps and it is naturally too early to talk about market introduction of electric cars with Range Extenders. The industrial decision will come after we have learned more about fuel cells and the opportunities they offer,” says Stefan Jacoby.